Wednesday, December 23, 2009

Mishaps of Mommy


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Monday, December 14, 2009

Untitled Post


Thursday, December 10, 2009

reBlog from Mommy Tyme: Mommy's Reviews you can Use

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Saturday, December 5, 2009

Sensations- How do they occur with infants? Prenatal or postnatal?

Infants learn about the world around them through their sensations and perceptions, or interpretations of their senses (Gauvin, 2009). Sensations are well developed at birth, and although it is difficult to measure the amount or level of perception and sensation, there are some measures universally used (Gauvin, 2009). Visual preference is when an infant is presented with two stimuli and the amount of time looking at each stimuli is calculated (Gauvin, 2009). It is assumed the longer time spent on a stimuli, a difference is distinguished by the infant (Gauvin, 2009). A second tool used to measure perception and sensation is Violation of Expectation (Gauvin, 2009). Something unusual or different from the natural setting is presented and if the infant engages in a different (atypical) behavior, then it is assumed the baby has some knowledge or understanding about the stimuli and its purpose (Gauvin, 2009). Many other measurements are also utilized to determine the ability to distinguish, prefer, or recognize stimuli with infants.
One factor that can impair measurements is habituation to stimuli. An infant habituates to stimuli when repeated exposure to the stimuli occurs and the reaction decreases to that stimulus (Gauvin, 2009). Decreased response occurs when the ability to habituate to the stimuli is achieved, and this impacts the studies of sensory and perception (Gauvin, 2009).
Most senses are developed by birth. Increased ability to discriminate and utilize these senses occurs after birth. At one week an infant is able to discriminate between black and gray visually, and by eight months they have approximately 25% of the visual ability of adults (Gauvin, 2009). Hearing is present and can be tested immediately after birth (Gauvin, 2009). In fact, some studies have even tested hearing prenatally. By the end of the first two years, a child can discriminate between sounds, pitch, and tone (Gauvin, 2009).
Infants are further capable of intermodal perception, or using information from more than one sensory system and integrating the information (Gauvin, 2009). By one month babies can integrate vision and touch, and at four months they can integrate visual and auditory stimuli (Gauvin, 2009).

Obviously the sensations are developed by birth and merely fine tuned post natal, allowing the infant to categorize and associate information from the sensory systems into their knowledge constructs. In fact, it is possible by the amount of prenatal sensory information and the formation of neural networks that the neonates are able to learn prenatally.

Valerie Poling

Gauvin, P. (2009). Child Psychology: A Contemporary Viewpoint, 7th ed. In C. U. HASOP, Psychology Human Prenatal Development (pp. 3-36). McGraw-Hill Primis.

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Sensory Processing ... Starting to develop?

Development of sensation is difficult to measure or test due to the inability of the infant to answer or respond to questions, limited physical abilities, etc.  However, many measures have been developed to assist in making assumptions about the amount of sensory information and perception of that information achieved by infants. 

Research indicates that by one month and infant has the ability to differentiate speech from other sounds and can visually scan an area, indicating they have visual perception (Gauvin, 2009).  In fact, by one week research shows that an infant can discriminate between black and gray from as far as one foot (Gauvin, 2009).  By eight months, the infant has 25% of visual ability of adults; however acuity increases with age and rate of development (Gauvin, 2009).  The perception of color develops post natal, rather than prenatal, and likely depends upon experience with color to discriminate or attribute information or constructs to it. 

Studies of sensory processing determine that by three months infants can remember specific stimuli and clearly see objects (Gauvin, 2009).  By six months facial recognition occurs.  Facial Recognition and preference also develops and is not prenatally occurring (Gauvin, 2009).  Research suggests a predisposition for facial features and characteristics, but it is widely assumed that preference and recognition is based on experience with faces, frequency of exposure, and the positive or negative attitudes associated with them (Gauvin, 2009).   During this period, visual acuity increases, as does, interest in sounds and audible stimuli (Gauvin, 2009).

By one year, infants are able to categorize objects by like features such as color, shape, etc.  Limited problems solving skills are emerging, the idea of consequences is being understood, and sequencing is occurring (Gauvin, 2009).

Valerie Poling


Gauvin, P. (2009). Child Psychology: A Contemporary Viewpoint, 7th ed. In C. U. HASOP, Psychology Human Prenatal Development (pp. 3-36). McGraw-Hill Primis.

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